Thursday, May 21, 2020

Nola Pender s Health Promotion Model - 888 Words

Nola Pender’s health promotion model is an organizing structure that establishes how nurses and patients can work together to aid individuals in achieving optimal health outcomes through health promotion engagement. The model of health promotion is multifaceted in the nature that it is applicable across the lifespan in various settings and situations and has also been revised to mirror more effective outcomes of patient well-being. The model’s development was based primarily on Pender’s life experiences and was cultivated from the social cognitive theory and the expectancy value model of human motivation. The model has been utilized to develop several instruments including the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and the Exercise Benefits-Barriers Scale (EBBS). The initial version of the health promotion model presented seven cognitive-perceptual factors and five modifying factors to define and forecast health. The later revised version that continues to be in use in today’s practice contains three new variables. The model recognizes fourteen theoretical propositions and is based off seven assumptions of the elements of person, environment, and health. The model of health promotion is useful in clinical practice, education, and research settings and has influenced critical thinking and practice decisions leading to evidence-based practice. There have been several advances in the health promotion model; however, there are improvements still to be made. The purpose ofShow MoreRelatedPender s Health Promotion Model1128 Words   |  5 PagesPender’s Health Promotion Model Theoretical Framework Analysis Alison Kascher Simmons College â€Æ' Health promotion is defined as the process of empowering individuals to make healthy lifestyle choices and motivating them to become better self-managers (Ricketts, 2014). Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) focuses on increasing a person’s level of well-being and identifies the multifaceted nature of individuals as they interact with their environment to pursue health (Health Promotion Model, 2013)Read MoreHealth Promotion Of The Elderly1585 Words   |  7 PagesThe World Health Organization defines health as â€Å"a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity† (W.H.O., 2003). To promote health is a global responsibility that begins with oneself. In order to first achieve personal health, one has to be educated on the aspects of health. Clinicians, more specifically, Nurses can use health promotion techniques during interactions with patients and the population. Health promotion as defin ed byRead MoreEssay about Nola J. Pender Theorist2696 Words   |  11 Pageshead: In-Depth Theorist Presentation, Nola J. Pender, Health Promotion Model 1 In-Depth Theorist Presentation, Nola J. Pender Health Promotion Model Jennifer D’Andrea Description of the theory The Health Promotion Model (HPM), designed by Nola J. Pender, describes the multidimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health while increasing their level of well-being. Pender offers a theory that places importanceRead MoreHistorical Development of Nursing Timeline1181 Words   |  5 Pages1970 â€Å"Rogers’s theory asserts that human beings are dynamic energy fields that are integrated with environmental energy fields so that the person and his or her environment form a single unit†9 (Masters, 2014, pg. 55). Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model, 1970 Internal and external environments constant interactions with the person for witch the person adapts to (Masters, 2014). . Dorothea Orem’s Self--Care Deficient Theory of Nursing, 1971 Foundation of theory is based on three different theoriesRead MoreHealth Promotion Model Of Nursing1353 Words   |  6 Pages Health Promotion Model Amy D. Kramer Point Loma Nazarene University â€Æ' Introduction Nursing theory is important to the profession of nursing as it provides guidance to practice and helps to broaden nursing knowledge. Although nursing theory can be traced back to Florence Nightingale’s pioneer work during and after the Crimean War, it was not until the twentieth century that theory development in the nursing profession became a major part of discussion and implementation (AlligoodRead MoreNursing Career As A Licensed Practical Nurse1899 Words   |  8 Pageslungs and hemodynamics. In the ICU, you can truly appreciate how the nurse manipulates the environment to influence the patient s health. For instance, when the patients hypercapnic and acidotic, the ventilation rate can be increased to drive down the carbon dioxide and adjust the acidosis. These career paths have shown me that the patient, nurse, environment and health have to be examined and assumptions defined within the self before one can apply them in practice. Metaparadim A metaparadigmRead MoreA Research Study On Gestational Diabetes Mellitus ( Gdm ) Essay1590 Words   |  7 Pagesbetter improve their health in the future. Conceptual/Theoretical Framework The article did not state a specific framework, but I chose one from nursing-theory.org that best fit this article. I chose Pender’s Health Promotion Model. This model was designed by Nola Pender. Pender designed this model to be a helpful to models of health protection. Pender’s Health Promotion Model defines health as a positive dynamic state instead of just the absence of disease. Health promotion is focused on improvingRead MoreEssay about historical theory850 Words   |  4 Pagesphysical environment such as air, light, and warmth to restore the individuals health (George, 2011). Her work directed nursing practice for over a hundred and fifty years. As we jumped to the 1950’s, graduates from Columbia University developed the first concept of nursing theory. Theorists such as Hildegard E. Peplau, Faye Abdellah, and Lydia Hall are one of many theorists who used the biomedical model. This model focuses on what nurses do and their functional role (George, 2011). HildegardRead MoreImpact of Nursing in a Professional Environment2438 Words   |  10 Pagesprofessional environment. The United States is lagging behind other nations of the world in fully integrating midwifery into its health care system. â€Å"While midwives deliver only 6% of the approximately 220,000 babies in the United States each year, midwives in other countries attend up to 80% of their countries births.† (Bowers, 2000). In our ever-changing fast paced health care system, many woman feel that they receive little personnel attention during pregnancy and childbirth from their healthcareRead Morehealth promotion: concept analysis Essay examples4054 Words   |  17 Pagesï » ¿The Concept Analysis of Health Promotion Abstract Health promotion (HP) is a multi-dimensional and complex concept which the researcher is frequently used and defined in different ways. One of the nursing roles for nurses is the promoter of health; therefore it would be useful to attempt to clarify the concept. This article develops a concept analysis is to clarify the meaning of an existing concept of HP using the process developed by Pender, Murdaugh, and Parsons (2006). The method suggested

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Anxiety Of Second Language Learning - 1616 Words

Anxiety in Second Language Learning; Causes and Solutions Dalee Kimble PSY 204.10 Allen Bonner, M.S LPC October 6, 2016 Anxiety in Second Language Learning; Causes and Solutions Learning a foreign language can be a lot like dating: one can easily get tongue tied as they anxiously attempt to reach the object of their affection. This â€Å"butterflies in your tummy† feeling can help a person when it comes to affairs of the heart. It reminds them that the smallest transgression can lead to enormous costs. But what about learning a foreign language, where matters of the tongue are much harder to control. The pressure a student feels to perform well in the classroom can become unbearable, but becomes even more specific to learning a second language. This subject will be looked at in much greater detail by investigating research, causes, and anxiety in foreign and second language learning. Many students who surpass all expectations in other subject areas struggle a great deal in learning a second language because of anxiety specific to learning a foreign language. MacIntyre and Gardner (1991) found through a controlled laboratory setting that anxiety in interpersonal settings and associated with recall of vocabulary words and learning is communicative anxiety. Other types of anxiety include classroom anxiety, learning anxiety, state anxiety, test anxiety, and audience anxiety. Each depends on the type of anxiety that can occur within second language learning.Show MoreRelatedEffects Of Anxiety On Second Language Writing Essay1574 Words   |  7 Pagesthe language. One other reason could be due to anxieties learning a language. Throughout my life, I have heard a lot about second language speaking and listening anxieties, but I have not heard much about how anxiety or writing anxieties can affect second language writing. Therefore, I wanted to look more into the resear ch and conduct research on the correlations of second language anxieties and writing. Through my research, there are themes we need to consider to fully understand anxieties and theRead MoreFactors Affecting Second Language Acquisition1417 Words   |  6 PagesMaria Teresa Muedra Peris Module QXL-4413 - ELF Theory Assignment 1 Factors Affecting Second Language Acquisition According to Lightbown and Spada, when teaching English as a Second Language we have to take into account certain characteristics in our learners that may lead to a more or less successful language learning. The characteristics discussed in this chapter are intelligence, aptitude, personality, motivation and attitudes, learners preferences and beliefs and age of acquisition. IntelligenceRead MoreAffective Factors Affecting The Learners Essay1306 Words   |  6 Pagestopic in second language acquisition. The â€Å"new† dimension of emotion injected some agitation to know more about their influence on the learners’ achievement in learning a second language. According to considerable researchers’ theoretical studies, the affective state of a learner, which contributes to success or failure in foreign language learning, was given much more importance. Henceforth, when attention is drawn to the affect domain, this leads to a more effective foreign language learning. ActuallyRead MoreThe Phenomenon Of Language Anxiety1516 Words   |  7 PagesThe phenomena of language anxiety are an important theme in the second language acquisition. Foreign language anxiety is associated with curriculum, cultural and cognitive aspects. Foreign language anxiety is an influential factor in the students` academic performance, with association with motivation, gender and self-esteem. This study investigates the relationship between ELL and anxiety level with an emphasis on gender. The participants will consist of 40-50 students between the ages of 18-20Read MoreSecond Language Acquisition1336 Words   |  6 Pagesare also several factors such as gender, L1 literacy, social context, and personality. In this term paper I will discuss how age and personality affect second language acquisition and the factors can be used in the language classroom to facilitate second language acquisition. Age and Second Language Acquisition: How age affects second language acquisition is an interesting topic for most of the educators who have to develop appropriate curriculum and instructional strategies for immigrant studentsRead MoreLearning A Foreign Language Is Not An Easy Task Essay1317 Words   |  6 Pages In fact, learning a foreign language is not an easy task. This process demands from learners a lot of concentration, persistence and intensive studies if required. However, the fact of the matter, that there are a lot of trammels that impede learners from learning any foreign language. Indeed, it is worthy considering that these barriers are beyond learners predominance, as being related to their emotional side ; that is to say ; it is not easy to get rid from them and this is why a lot of researchRead MoreThe Success Of Second Language Acquisition1547 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The success of second language acquisition consists of various psychological factors related to a person’s emotions (affective factors) toward the L2 being learned. According to Hui Ni, â€Å"[a]ffective factors are the most important factors in SLA† (2012, p.1508). Affective issues may arise from factors such as motivation, self-confidence, attitude, or anxiety. However, these issues may be solved through the proper guidance and constant encouragement of an instructor. How Affective FactorsRead MoreVariation Between Females And Males Anxiety Level Of English As Foreign Language Learning1025 Words   |  5 Pagesinvestigate the variation between females and males anxiety level in English as foreign language learning. Importantly, students from both of the two genders can perceive considerable level of language anxiety inside and outside the classroom environment. This phenomenon seems natural in foreign language classroom with relevance to the stress level of accompanied learning. Consequently, this led the researchers to study the role of anxiety among foreign language learners and review the current psychologicalRead MoreForeign Language Learning And Teaching1479 Words   |  6 Pagessociety to have good command of more than two languages in addition to one’s native language (cf. Gehring, 2010). Consequently, various forms of foreign language learning and teaching have become common worldwide, and language courses are offered in school, u niversity, and in the workforce. In particular, English, French, and Spanish as foreign languages have been dominating in school systems around Europe (cf. Decke-Cornill Kà ¼ster, 2010). The world language and lingua franca English is widely usedRead MoreRelationship Between Interpretation Performance and Anxiety1640 Words   |  7 Pages Anxiety and Interpretation Performance : do they relate? Interpreting is deemed a highly stress-provoking activity. (Jimà ©nez and Pinazo 2001; Seleskovitch 1978).It requires an excellent command of the source language and the target language, perfect memory retention, and fast information retrieval from the memory file. These complex linguistic, cognitive and psychomotor operations can easily produce an enormous amount of stress (Chiang,2006). 1. General Anxiety Theories Anxiety is a feeling

Reflection of Educational Philosophy Free Essays

More than ever, teachers have myriad of decisions to make in their classrooms. Naturally, they have to determine curricula, how to rate the students on their work and the specific grades to give to each pupil. However, a teacher’s responsibility goes far beyond this. We will write a custom essay sample on Reflection of Educational Philosophy or any similar topic only for you Order Now They must decide what other skills would be helpful, or even essential, to live in this fast-paced global environment. Beyond the academics, students need education in intercommunication, diversity and multiculturalism, time management, critical thinking, creativity and expression, and multi-tasking. Many students also need self-esteem building, stress reduction methods, psychological support and just a caring, nonjudgmental hand of support. According to the class readings, educational philosophy reflects the personal values/principles that guide teachers in making choices in their classroom. To determine these choices, they should take into consideration the nature of reality (metaphysics); the study of knowledge that has been disclosed to man by God (revealed); knowledge that is confirmed trough the senses (empirical); knowledge that is accepted as true because it comes form noted experts in their respective fields (authoritative); knowledge that comes from within (intuitive); the study of objective or subjective values; permanent and unchanging values (absoluteness of values) as well the hierarchy of values. My hope is that I will have a broad educational philosophy based on my personal and religious values that guides me in the long run, but, at the same time, the ability to see each child as an individual who has his/her unique needs. Each student exists in a different reality of circumstances, is surrounded by and reacts to different sensual stimulation, learns accepted knowledge at a varied pace and aptitude, and has a special mindset and internal belief system. A teacher should not compare students based on their talents or abilities-each child is special in his/her own way. The pupil’s strengths should be encouraged and their challenges improved. I believe that the students of today must learn their academics. That goes without saying. However, above all else it is essential to instill within them respect for others and themselves, the ability to manage change, and the patience to accept temporary setbacks. As they get older, their life decisions will become increasingly difficult. With a strong foundation of self-worth and the ability to respect the differences and needs of others, it is hoped that they can make the decisions that are best for them and their world at large. How to cite Reflection of Educational Philosophy, Essay examples

Reflection of Educational Philosophy Free Essays

More than ever, teachers have myriad of decisions to make in their classrooms. Naturally, they have to determine curricula, how to rate the students on their work and the specific grades to give to each pupil. However, a teacher’s responsibility goes far beyond this. We will write a custom essay sample on Reflection of Educational Philosophy or any similar topic only for you Order Now They must decide what other skills would be helpful, or even essential, to live in this fast-paced global environment. Beyond the academics, students need education in intercommunication, diversity and multiculturalism, time management, critical thinking, creativity and expression, and multi-tasking. Many students also need self-esteem building, stress reduction methods, psychological support and just a caring, nonjudgmental hand of support. According to the class readings, educational philosophy reflects the personal values/principles that guide teachers in making choices in their classroom. To determine these choices, they should take into consideration the nature of reality (metaphysics); the study of knowledge that has been disclosed to man by God (revealed); knowledge that is confirmed trough the senses (empirical); knowledge that is accepted as true because it comes form noted experts in their respective fields (authoritative); knowledge that comes from within (intuitive); the study of objective or subjective values; permanent and unchanging values (absoluteness of values) as well the hierarchy of values. My hope is that I will have a broad educational philosophy based on my personal and religious values that guides me in the long run, but, at the same time, the ability to see each child as an individual who has his/her unique needs. Each student exists in a different reality of circumstances, is surrounded by and reacts to different sensual stimulation, learns accepted knowledge at a varied pace and aptitude, and has a special mindset and internal belief system. A teacher should not compare students based on their talents or abilities-each child is special in his/her own way. The pupil’s strengths should be encouraged and their challenges improved. I believe that the students of today must learn their academics. That goes without saying. However, above all else it is essential to instill within them respect for others and themselves, the ability to manage change, and the patience to accept temporary setbacks. As they get older, their life decisions will become increasingly difficult. With a strong foundation of self-worth and the ability to respect the differences and needs of others, it is hoped that they can make the decisions that are best for them and their world at large. How to cite Reflection of Educational Philosophy, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Mills Utilitarianism Essays (1326 words) - Utilitarianism

Mill's Utilitarianism Mill's Utilitarianism When faced with a moral dilemma, utilitarianism identifies the appropriate considerations, but offers no realistic way to gather the necessary information to make the required calculations. This lack of information is a problem both in evaluating the welfare issues and in evaluating the consequentialist issues which utilitarianism requires be weighed when making moral decisions. Utilitarianism attempts to solve both of these difficulties by appealing to experience; however, no method of reconciling an individual decision with the rules of experience is suggested, and no relative weights are assigned to the various considerations. In deciding whether or not to torture a terrorist who has planted a bomb in New York City, a utilitarian must evaluate both the overall welfare of the people involved or effected by the action taken, and the consequences of the action taken. To calculate the welfare of the people involved in or effected by an action, utilitarianism requ ires that all individuals be considered equally. Quantitative utilitarians would weigh the pleasure and pain which would be caused by the bomb exploding against the pleasureand pain that would be caused by torturing the terrorist. Then, the amounts would be summed and compared. The problem with this method is that it is impossible to know beforehand how much pain would be caused by the bomb exploding or how much pain would be caused by the torture. Utilitarianism offers no practical way to make the interpersonal comparison of utility necessary to compare the pains. In the case of the bomb exploding, it at least seems highly probable that a greater amount of pain would be caused, at least in the present, by the bomb exploding. This probability suffices for a quantitative utilitarian, but it does not account for the consequences, which create an entirely different problem, which will be discussed below. The probability also does not hold for Mill's utilitarianism. Mill's Utilitarianis m insists on qualitative utilitarianism, which requires that one consider not only the amount of pain or pleasure, but also the quality of such pain and pleasure. Mill suggests that to distinguish between different pains and pleasures we should ask people who have experienced both types which is more pleasurable or more painful. This solution does not work for the question of torture compared to death in an explosion. There is no one who has experienced both, therefore, there is no one who can be consulted. Even if we agree that the pain caused by the number of deaths in the explosion is greater than the pain of the terrorist being tortured, this assessment only accounts for the welfare half of the utilitarian's considerations. Furthermore, one has no way to measure how much more pain is caused by allowing the bomb to explode than by torturing the terrorist. After settling the issues surrounding the welfare, a utilitarian must also consider the consequences of an action. In weighing the consequences, there are two important considerations. The first, which is especially important to objectivist Utilitarianism, is which people will be killed. The second is the precedent which will be set by the action. Unfortunately for the decision maker, the information necessary to make either of these calculations is unavailable. There is no way to determine which people will be killed and weigh whether their deaths would be good for society. Utilitarianism requires that one compare the good that the people would do for society with the harm they would do society if they were not killed. For example, if a young Adolf Hitler were in the building, it might do more good for society to allow the building to explode. Unfortunately for an individual attempting to use utilitarianism to make for decisions, there is no way to know beforehand what a person will do. Furthermore, without even knowing which building the bomb is in, there is no way to predict which people will surely be in the building. A subjectivist utilitarian would dismiss this consideration and would examine only what a rational person would consider to be the consequence; however, even the subjectivist utilitarian must face the question of precedent setting. Utilitarianism considers justice and humane treatment to be good for society as a whole and therefore instrumentally good as a

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Author Technique Questions in SAT Reading Strategies

Author Technique Questions in SAT Reading Strategies SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Author technique questions are some of the rarer questions you will see on the SAT Reading section. In this article, I’ll go through what these questions look like and how to solve them step by step. Note: The advice in this article is still relevant for the current SAT (March 2016 and beyond); however, some of the examples have not yet been updated for the new test. What is an Author Technique Question? Author technique questions will ask about the author’s tone or the passage's mood in a Reading passage.These types of questions are relatively rare on the SAT, but they do come up at least a couple of times per test. Here’s an example: The author mentions "sharpener shavings" (line 10) in order to portray a mood of A. unrestrained joyB. sentimental reminiscenceC. bitter disappointmentD. cautious optimismE. dark foreboding Author technique questions are a subset of inference questions. This is because you have to understand the information in the passage and then take it a step further to make an inference about what feelings the author has toward the subject (tone) or what feelings she is trying to instill in the reader through her writing (mood). However, as with all other SAT Reading questions, you should still be able to find clear evidence for your answer in the passage. How Do I Solve These Types of Questions? Step 1: Carefully Read the Question First, read the question and figure out what it’s asking.If it asks for tone, it wants the answer that best describes the feelings the author has toward her subject.If it asks for mood, it wants the answer that best describes the feeling the specified part of the passage conveys to the reader. Step 2: Read the Lines Referenced in the Question Go back to the passage and look over the lines the question is referencing.I would recommend reading the whole paragraph around whichever line is referenced in the question so you get a full picture of the tone or mood in that section of the passage. Step 3: Think about the Tone or Mood Before you read the answer choices, think for yourself about what the general tone or mood of that section of the passage is.For questions like the example question above, look at where and how the phrase mentioned in the question is used and to what effect. Try to find key descriptive words that indicate the tone or mood and imply connotation. It's often helpful to identify positive or negative connotation for the tone or mood first in order to eliminate a couple of answers that definitely don't fit. Step 4: Go Through the Answer Choices, and Eliminate 4 Once you have a preliminary idea of the tone or mood in the passage, look at the answer choices.Eliminate any that obviously don’t fit based on your judgments about connotation.Then, look at the remaining choices and get more specific with your assessment so you can get rid of four choices.Try to find approximate synonyms for the answer choices in the passage - you should be able to come up with direct evidence for your answer. Now that we know the steps, let’s try and solve a question for real! SO PUMPED. Author Technique in Action Ready? Ok, here’s the question: The author's overall tone in this passage is best described as one of A. jubilationB. frustrationC. curiosityD. appreciationE. uncertainty First, we'll read the question over carefully. This is a tone question, and it’s going to be asking about the passage as a whole.We need to look for the author’s treatment of the subject of the passage and how she feels about it. Now let’s read over the passage: In between school days, we gathered hazelnuts, fished, had long deer-hunting weekends, went to powwows, beaded on looms, and made quilts. I did not question the necessity or value of our school education, but somehow I grew up knowing it wasn't the only education I would need. I'm thankful for those experiences of my Anishinaabe heritage, because now I now by heart not only the national anthem, but the ancient song of the loon. I recognize not only the alphabet and the parts of an English sentence, but the intricate language of a beaver's teeth and tail. The author is talking about her experiences growing up and learning skills relevant to her heritage that she wouldn’t otherwise have learned in school or anywhere else.What might the tone of the passage be? Well, the author definitely seems to have a positive impression of these experiences. We see direct evidence for this when she says â€Å"I’m thankful for those experiences of my Anishinaabe heritage.† It sounds likeshe is grateful for the opportunity she had to learn the skills described in the passage and proud of her heritage.Now that we have our basic idea of the tone, let’s see which answer choices we can eliminate. Choice A: jubilation The author is pleased with her learning experiences, but saying she has a tone of jubilation seems a little extreme.Do we see any words in the passage that indicate jubilation or uncontrolled joy? No, the tone is definitely more measured (calm) than that. Eliminate this one! Choice B: frustration This seems wrong right away because frustration has a negative connotation.The author is not frustrated with the learning experiences she had as a result of her heritage - she says herself that she is thankful for them. There's nothing in the passage that indicates frustration on the part of the author. Cross it out! Choice C: curiosity This could be a tricky one.The author does betray a curious personality because she is interested in learning about a variety of different things.However, even if curiosity might describe the author accurately, it doesn’t describe the tone of the passage. The feelings she presents toward the subject of the passage are nostalgia and gratefulness, not curiosity about her experiences. Get rid of this one too! Choice D: appreciation This choice matches with what we originally thought about the tone.The author even says â€Å"I’m thankful for those experiences† when referring to the descriptions of her childhood in the passage.She clearly appreciates having learned about her heritage and the skills that go along with it in tandem with her standard education. Keep this one! Choice E: uncertainty This answer doesn’t fit with the tone. It has a slightly negative connotation, and there's no evidence for any uncertainty in the passage. The author's feelings about her experiences are clearly stated. This one's wrong! Looks like Choice D is our answer! Did you know loons have red eyes? As if the sound of their "ancient song" wasn't creepy enough. You’ll notice that the key here was to look for direct evidence of tone in the passage.Tone and mood questions trip people up because they seem like they are ambiguous and subjective.Remember that SAT Reading can’t ask you any questions where the answers aren’t concretely supported in the text. For tone and mood questions, always look for keywords in the passage that point to the author’s feelings or the feelings she is trying to instill in the audience.Often you will find close synonyms for the correct answer choice like we did above with â€Å"thankful† and â€Å"appreciation†. You should at the very least be able to determine positive or negative connotation in the tone or mood, which usually helps to eliminate two or three incorrect answer choices. Summary Author Technique questions ask about tone and mood in an SAT Reading passage. To answer an author technique question, you should: 1. Read the question carefully2. Read the lines referenced in the question3. Make a preliminary judgment about the tone or mood4. Read the answer choices, and eliminate four based on the evidence in the passage Remember, even though tone and mood may seem like subjective things, on the SAT there is no ambiguity in answers.Look for direct evidence that points to your answer choice - if you can find it, you will get these questions right every time! What's Next? Want more skills-focused SAT Reading articles? Start with these articles on inference questions and big picture questions, or jump right into our ultimate guide to SAT Reading! What's the best way to get information out of a passage on SAT Reading? Find out the best way to read the passage and what's actually on SAT Reading. Learn the strategies you should be using to score an 800 on SAT Reading. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. If you liked this Reading lesson, you'll love our program.Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get thousands ofpractice problems organized by individual skills so you learn most effectively. We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to study next. Check out our 5-day free trial:

Sunday, March 1, 2020

That Confusion

5 Cases of Which/That Confusion 5 Cases of â€Å"Which†/â€Å"That† Confusion 5 Cases of â€Å"Which†/â€Å"That† Confusion By Mark Nichol Perhaps you are confused by grammatical discussions of restrictive and nonrestrictive or essential or nonessential clauses. (I know I can never keep those terms straight.) Never mind the nomenclature; when you’re editing your own writing, or someone else’s, simply read the phrase that follows a which (or who) or a that and determine whether the phrase that follows is parenthetical (it can be removed with no change of meaning to the sentence) or it is integral to the sentence. Here are five sample sentences followed by explanation of the problem and a revision. 1. â€Å"The inventor of the Etch A Sketch toy that generations of children drew on, shook up, and started over, has died in France, the toy’s maker said.† The use of that to serve as a grammatical bridge between the name of the product and the phrase describing how it was used implies that more than one type of product called the Etch A Sketch exists; the one that children used as described is, according to this sentence construction, one of two or more types. When that is replaced with which, and which is preceded by a comma, the sentence structure makes clear that the existence of other Etch A Sketch products is not implied: â€Å"The inventor of the Etch A Sketch toy, which generations of children have drawn on and shaken up before starting over, has died in France, the toy’s maker said.† (Note, too, that I have altered the wording explaining how the toy is used and have changed the tense to indicate that the product is extant.) 2. â€Å"It was a time when tensions were growing between the black and Jewish communities that had previously been aligned in efforts to affect social change.† The point of this sentence is not what had occurred between certain communities of black and Jewish people, but what the entire black and Jewish communities had experienced. The restrictive force of that must be replaced by the parenthetical purpose of a comma followed by which: â€Å"It was a time when tensions were growing between the black and Jewish communities, which had previously been aligned in efforts to affect social change.† 3. â€Å"Police are probing allegations of incidents involving the renowned astrophysicist who is paralyzed.† The phrase â€Å"the renowned astrophysicist who is paralyzed† distractingly refers to the concept of astrophysicists who are not paralyzed. However, â€Å"who is paralyzed† is merely additional information appended to the factual statement, and should be attached with a comma followed by who (the equivalent of which): â€Å"Police are probing allegations of incidents involving the renowned astrophysicist, who is paralyzed.† 4. â€Å"The company’s incident-response team can quickly and reliably identify events, which threaten an organization’s security posture.† Here and in the example below, the problem in the previous sentence is reversed: This statement implies that all events are threatening. Replacing the comma and which with that corrects that impression by restricting the meaning to refer specifically to threatening events: â€Å"The company’s incident-response team can quickly and reliably identify events that threaten an organization’s security posture.† 5. â€Å"The court ruled this week that a law passed last summer, which gave five top government-office holders immunity from prosecution, was illegal and must be revoked.† This sentence construction suggests that the summer, rather than the law, granted immunity. Removal of the bracketing commas and replacement of which with that integrates the central point into the framing sentence: â€Å"The court ruled this week that a law passed last summer that gave five top government-office holders immunity from prosecution is illegal and must be revoked.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:75 Synonyms for â€Å"Angry†Used To vs. Use Toâ€Å"Least,† â€Å"Less,† â€Å"More,† and â€Å"Most†